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Season 1, Episode 1

Moravian Customs and Traditions

By Casey Landolf and Maizie Plumley

To provide an introduction to the Moravian religion, Maizie and Casey discuss a few core customs and traditions practiced by this Protestant denomination in early America. 

The Moravians are the first group of protestants, predating Lutherans by about 100 years. Certain customs and traditions make this religious group unique.

Hosts

Casey Landolf

Maizie Plumley

Cast

Announcer/Reader 1: James Landolf

Reader 2: Seth Payne

Reader 3: Maggie Pelta-Pauls

Researched by

Casey Landolf

Maizie Plumley

 

 

Transcript for Moravian Customs and Traditions

Introduction

Announcer: This is Moravian Mornings. A podcast discussing the history surrounding the Moravians who settled in Wachovia.

 

Casey: Welcome to the first episode of Moravian Mornings. For our very first episode, we are going to discuss some Moravian customs and practices, but, before we get started, let’s give a little background on this podcast. This podcast is the official Historic Bethabara Park podcast. Bethabara was the first Moravian settlement in the Piedmont Triad area of North Carolina. This town was established in 1753. Along with discussing specific history relating to Bethabara, we are also going to discuss history relating to the neighboring Moravian towns as well. These other towns are Bethania and, as many more people know, Salem, known as Old Salem, today. All are located in Winston-Salem.

 

Maizie: The Moravians bought and settled on a tract of land, titled Wachovia, in the Piedmont area of North Carolina, so when we mention Wachovian Moravians, just know that we’re referring to the Moravians of Bethabara, Bethania, and Salem. One more quick fact before we start, unknown to many, the Moravians are actually the first group of protestants, who predate Lutherans by about 100 years.[1] Now that we’ve done a brief overview of the Moravians, grab your coffee, and let’s get started.

 

Choir System

Casey: One of the most prominent features of the Moravian denomination is that they separated and lived in choirs. The choirs aren’t the choirs we think of today. They aren’t singing choirs; choirs are essentially groups. The members of each group are all similar in sex, age, and marital status.[2] The system originally came about in Herrnhut, Germany, in 1728 when a group of unmarried men established the first Single Brother’s choir.[3] Two years later, the first single women’s choir was established.[4] The system would eventually include choirs for boys, girls, single men and single women, married men and married women, and those whose partners had passed.[5]

In larger Moravian communities, there would be infant choirs, but Bethabara was too small with too little of a population. Each group lived together in their own house (when financially possible). They ate meals together, and they worshipped together. Choirs were essential as Moravians saw these groups as spiritual families. They’re going through the same life experiences as each other, so it was crucial to live with and practice their religion with those going through similar life experiences.[6] Each choir has a Choir Helper, which is basically the leader of that specific choir. I also need to mention that Moravians were enslavers.  If an enslaved person became a member of the Moravian church and was baptized and given a new name, they would live in their designated choirs alongside the white Moravians.[7] This was at least the case in Bethabara when the town was established and through most of the 18th century.

Moravian women wore different colored ribbons to signify which choirs they were a part of. These ribbons were used to tie the ends of their caps together. The ribbons were also incorporated elsewhere in their attire, such as using ribbons to tie up their bodice. Little girls wore bright red, older girls wore burgundy, Single Sisters wore pink, married sisters wore blue, and widows wore white.[8] Around the time of the establishment of Bethabara, Moravians were beginning to switch to a nuclear family style of living for families, with Single Sisters and single men still living in separate houses with their choirs. There are a few reasons for this switch. Children were growing up in their choirs never seeing the roles they were supposed to play when they married. They did not get to see their parents be parents and how they interacted with each other. When they married, they were not aware of the roles they each needed to play in the relationship. Married couples actually had to be educated on how to be married and on what roles each of them played.[9] Another reason, which is understandable, is that married couples just couldn’t live together, and I’m sure they were upset with that. Ending the choir discussion on marriage is actually a good point to transition into your topic, Maizie. Why don’t you discuss the lot?

 

The Lot

Maizie: The lot system used by the Moravians is something you will probably hear us discuss several times in other episodes or when telling stories from Bethabara so I am just going to give you all the rundown so you know exactly what we are talking about. I am going to start with a quote from Moravian Women’s Memoirs: Their Related Lives by Katherine Faull, describing the use of the lot:

 

Reader 3: “In the 18th century Moravians made frequent use of the lot in an effort to determine the will of the Lord in any situation in which their right course of action was not clear to them. They were convinced that they could in this way rely on Christ’s guidance because of their acknowledgment of Him as the Chief Elder of their Church. After prayer, the Elders would draw one of three lots—there were usually three possibilities, positive, negative, and blank. A blank was interpreted to mean ‘wait.’”[10]

 

Maizie: Essentially, the lot was used by church elders to make decisions about a variety of matters and was done so using a lot box that contained two or three scrolls, or lots, indicating an affirmative answer, a negative answer, and an answer that left the matter up to further consideration or discussion with varying language depending on the question they were seeking an answer to. Depending on the question that was brought to the lot, sometimes only affirmative and negative lots were used. Us non-Moravians may think of this like a magic 8 ball, but to the Moravians at the time, the lot was a way they could essentially speak with God to receive information telling them the direction to go with certain matters.

Again, the lot was used in a variety of situations to help the church elders make decisions. For example, when selecting the site to build Salem, brother Frederic Marshall, a Moravian Architect, along with others, rode out and selected several different locations that were brought to the lot. This Process was noted in a diary at Bethabara:

 

Reader 1: “There was a conference, but none of the suggested sites were accepted.”[11]

 

Maizie: Though no suggested sites were accepted, it did not take long for another suitable site to be found.

 

Reader 1: “Brother Marshall and several other Brethren again rode toward the Petersbach, and were fortunate to find an apparently suitable site near the Annenberg on the side toward the Wach. This evening, in Conference, we asked the Savior about it, and He approved, for which we are very thankful.”[12]

 

Maizie: As we can see in this case, the lot was not viewed as the luck of the draw; it was used as a way to seek approval or disapproval from God in order to make the best decisions for the community. The lot played a major role in shaping the daily lives of the Moravians. The church elders would approach the lot seeking answers regarding marriages, where worship spaces would be located, if a non-Moravian could be received into the congregation, land transferal, if the Moravians should move from one town to another, and even in selecting spiritual and financial leaders within a congregation.[13] Another example, on April 19, 1786, the elder’s conference, met to consult the lot about the new Gemeinhaus for Bethabara.[14] Moravians stopped consulting the lot sometime in the 19th century.[15]

The use of the lot played a large role in some of the Church’s biggest decisions that had major ramifications on the Wachovia community. In 1769, Bethabara buys its first enslaved person, a man named Sam.[16] The church elders decided to buy their first enslaved person after drawing an affirmative lot when they asked if they should purchase Sam. Later, in 1771, the lot would also decide whether or not Sam would be baptized[17], and after receiving an affirmative, church elders went to the lot to decide which name he should be given, six were presented to the Savior, and Sam became Johannes/Johann Samuel.[18]

The elders would also consult the lot by asking if the Savior felt that a Single Brother and a Single Sister should be joined in matrimony. If they received an affirmative answer, the Single Sister would then be asked if she would be interested in marrying this Single Brother and had the right to refuse.[19] If they received a negative answer, the Single Brother would either make another suggestion or the Choir helpers would choose a second potential bride.[20] Which I think leads us into the next topic that Casey will cover, Education and Marriage.

 

Education and Marriage

Casey: You mentioned how church elders approached the lot seeking answers regarding marriages within the community. Moravian men were typically in the 30s when they were able to marry. Women were around this age and probably younger, but before the lot was approached, there was a whole process that needed to be completed. Men and women needed to meet certain capstones in their life to be able to be considered getting married. Men specifically had to be able to prove that they could support a family.[21] This process they go through starts with when they’re young, and education is crucial. I’m going to start at the very beginning of their education. I’m sure the age that Moravian children began attending school varied depending on their location and their town needs, but there are records that give an idea of what age Moravian children in Wachovia started their schooling. There’s one section in Volume 1 of Records of the Moravians in North Carolina where an “Adam Spach and the wife of Peter Frey took their daughters, nine and six years old, to the school at Bethania,” so the youngest age children could attend school in Wachovia was most likely around six years old.[22] Boys and girls were educated separately.[23] A school for girls might not have always been available in Bethabara, which explains why the two daughters of Adam Spach and Peter Frey were brought to the school in Bethania.

The enslaved community was able to receive an education if they expressed the desire and if they had converted to being a Moravian. For example, Johann Samuel, the first enslaved person purchased by the Moravians at Bethabara that you mentioned earlier, expressed “a desire to know the Savior,” and he began lessons so he could read and study the bible.[24] Enslaved children could also receive an education if their parents belonged to the Moravian church or if their Moravian enslaver wished for them to attend school. They would be educated alongside the white Moravian children.[25] With their schooling, children learned a multitude of different subjects: reading and writing in German, and later learning to read and write in English, bible studies, math, music lessons.[26]

Education was highly-encouraged, but it also wasn’t free. Parents, whether enslaved or white, had to pay if they wanted their children to receive an education, and enslavers also paid these fees for their enslaved people to attend.[27] School fees ranged from 6d (pence) to four and two shillings,[28] depending on if a child attended the girls’ or boys’ school and if they attended for a full or half-day. These expenses likely helped pay teachers’ stipends, supplies, and wool to keep the room warm during winter. The educational schooling for Moravians would typically end around the age of 15, with the children, this includes enslaved Moravians, all moving into the Single Brother and Single Sister choirs. White Moravian boys around this age would often become apprenticed to a tradesmen.[29] They then needed to work their way up, becoming a journeyman, and eventually a master tradesmen in charge of their own shop. This process took quite a long time, so it makes sense that many of the men were in their 30s when they were finally seen to be fit to marry.

Now that we are at the topic of marriage, I’ll move on to discussing marriages within the Moravian community. Years later, once men reached the milestone of becoming a master in their trade and reaching a specific age, they could approach their Choir Helper about being considered for marriage. The Choir Helper would determine if the individual was ready for marriage and was wishing to get married for the right reasons. There were multiple factors that went into determining if a Single Brother was ready for marriage. Along with having the title of a master tradesmen, a man was determined ready based on his disposition, bodily constitution, family, and external circumstances.[30] If a Single Brother was found ready, the Single Brother’s Choir Helper would approach the Single Sister’s Choir Helper and suggestions of Single Sisters would be made. Single Brothers could have a Single Sister in mind when wishing to marry and could inquire about the specific sister in mind. This preference would be considered first. If all agreed that the couple would make a good match, the proposal would be put before the lot. If the blank lot was drawn, the Single Brother could make another suggestion, or the Choir Helpers would choose a second potential bride.[31] Single Sisters also always had the right to refuse any marriage proposals.[32] (They could be 90 years old and thriving in the Single Sister’s Choir.)

Marriages more often happened to meet the needs of the community, so many of those marrying weren’t really in love (not saying that some weren’t in love, but so many marriages just took place due to community need). The Moravian faith also strongly encouraged marriage, but did not require it, so a man didn’t have to necessarily marry if he didn’t want to, and a woman had the right to say no to marriage proposals. However, men who held certain positions within the community were required to marry, positions such as minister, doctor, tavern keeper.[33] It was seen by the church elders that due to the circumstances of these jobs, they needed to marry, making it unoptional to remain single. In all cases of marriage proposal, the lot was addressed.[34] This is a great time for you to discuss Lovefeasts, since Lovefeasts were often held to celebrate marriages.

 

Lovefeasts

Maizie: Lovefeasts are another Moravian tradition we will probably be referring to a lot, so I think it is a good idea to also touch on this subject. Adelaide Fries, a former archivist for the Southern Province of the Moravian Church in North America, defines “Lovefeast” in the glossary of the Records of the Moravians in North Carolina as, “a religious service, founded on the ‘Agape’ the ‘meal in common’ of the early Christians. It is largely a song service, during which the members share a simple meal, usually bread and tea or coffee.[35]

The Moravians brought this tradition of sharing a simple meal together, which they often referred to as “Liebesmahl” when they first arrived in Wachovia.[36] The modern Moravian Church knows these meals as devotional services composed of hymns, a spiritual message, and a simple meal of a spiced bun and sweetened coffee. Moravian Lovefeasts have evolved into more of a tradition, whereas originally, Moravians would have known Lovefeasts to be an important part of their spiritual lives. Lovefeasts were held for many different celebratory occasions.

 

Reader 2: “Lovefeasts were held on many occasions, to welcome friends or to speed them on their homeward way, in honor of a birthday, at a gathering of spinners or harvesters, at any time, indeed, when the Lord’s blessing was desired on a semi-social gathering, as well as in a regular church service. It was always marked by a simple meal, usually bread and tea or coffee, by hymns, and prayer, with such additional features as the occasion demanded.”[37]

 

Maizie: Moravian Church records also indicate that each congregation member participating in Lovefeast should pay a small fee to attend. On October 8, 1753, fifteen Moravian Brethren traveled from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, heading towards North Carolina. Over 40 days they traveled 520 miles down the Great wagon road with 6 horses and a wagon full of supplies and arrived at the northern border of Wachovia on the afternoon of November 17, 1753. They then followed a road to the boundary of their tract, then cut the new road the remaining two and a half miles to a cabin built and abandoned by a hunter named Hans Wagner on land that would soon come to be known as Bethabara. Here they celebrated their safe arrival with a Lovefeast.[38] Brother Konigsdorfer[39] led them in a hymn he composed for that occasion that stated:

 

Reader 2: “We hold arrival Lovefeast here, in Carolina land,

A company of Brethren true, a little Pilgrim Band,

Called by the Lord to be of those, Who through the whole world go,

To bear Him witness everywhere, and naught but Jesus know.”[40]

 

Maizie: Following the first wedding ceremony in Bethabara on July 18, 1762, in which seven couples were married, the newlyweds, along with some of the Single Brethren in the town, attended a celebratory Lovefeast.[41] It is recorded in a Bethabara diary of 1787 that the marriage of Single Brother Johannes Ackermann and Single Sister Barbara Christman on June 12 was celebrated with a “happy lovefeast.”[42]

As for the food and beverages served at Lovefeasts in 18th century Wachovia, these varied. The 1753 Bethabara diary entry discusses the first Lovefeast taken by Brethren in Wachovia on Saturday, November 17, when they first arrived at the new settlement but doesn’t mention specific foods or beverages. It is assumed that at this first Lovefeast, the Brethren brought food and drink with them. On November 21, 1753, the Bethabara diary mentions a Lovefeast consisting of cornbread, which was taken prior to the first Moravian Communion in North Carolina.[43] Other diary entries reference specific food and beverage items that were served at Lovefeasts.

 

Reader 1: “January 4, 1754. Two Brethren continued preparations for tapping the maple trees, so that we may make vinegar and some molasses for use in Lovefeast.”[44]

“February 8: for the first time we had Lovefeast bread baked half flour half corn-meal.”[45]

November 4: “There was Lovefeast, with tea and bread.”[46]

November 30, “was Lovefeast, and we used for the first time bread made from flour ground in our own mill.”[47]

 

Maizie: And In 1754 on June 18, Reverend John Jacob Friis writes in a diary letter,

 

Reader 2: “We kept a Lovefeast with the Journey Cakes, and afterward a blessed Communion.”[48]

 

Maizie: A summary from the Wachovia Church Book, as archived by Fries, documents a Christmas Lovefeast:

 

Reader 1:  December 25, 1760: “On Christmas Day the English children from the mill came to see our Christmas decoration, they were so poorly clad that it would have moved a stone to pity. We told them why we rejoiced like children and gave to each a piece of cake. In Bethania, Brother Ettwein held a Lovefeast for the 24 children there, at the close of the service each received a pretty Christmas verse and a ginger cake, the first they had ever seen”[49]

 

Maizie: The Salem Congregation Council on December 4, 1789 decreed, as recorded by Crews and Starbuck:

 

Reader 2: “Coffee shall be served at the Christmas Lovefeast, instead of the tea, hitherto used. The coffee lovefeasts should be on Great Sabbath, on August 13, on November 13, at Christmas, and at the close of the year. If the 13th of August comes in very hot weather sangaree [a mixture of water and spiced wine] may be served”[50]

 

Maizie: The consecration services in 1800 of the new Salem Gemeinhaus drew one of the largest Lovefeast crowds in early Wachovia, approximately two thousand people. Diarists recorded the event:

 

Reader 2: “Beer and buns were served, and the buns, of which one thousand had been baked, must be cut in half to serve all of the people”[51]

 

Maizie: And on April 1, 1819, the Salem Congregation Council decided that Lovefeasts would “always be with coffee,”[52] Along with Lovefeasts, the tradition of candlelight services in the Moravian Church originated in Marienborn, Germany, in 1747, when lighted tapers were given to children during Christmas Lovefeast, “to tell them of the love that fills the heart of Jesus which ought to light a flame of love in each child’s heart.”[53] This tradition spread to other Moravian congregations and was first upheld in Wachovia in 1762.[54] The 1772 Salem Diary mentions another instance in which children within the community celebrated a Christmas Eve Lovefeast, and, “at the close, they received lighted candles and sung a sweet Ave and Hallelujah to the Infant Jesus.[55] The Candlelight Lovefeast tradition continued as mentioned in the Salem Diary.

 

Reader 1: December 24, 1775: “In the evening at six o’clock, fourteen children had the Christmas Eve Lovefeast, at its close receiving written verses and lighted candles.”[56]

 

Maizie: This tradition is still seen today in modern Moravian Church Christmas Lovefeasts in which lighted beeswax candles trimmed in red crêpe-paper are present. For over 200 years, Moravians have celebrated many occasions with Lovefeasts.

 

Conclusion

Maizie: I would also like to quickly point out that the presence of and importance of coffee seen in Moravian Lovefeasts throughout history actually gave us inspiration for the name of this podcast. Since we view coffee as a traditional breakfast staple and the Moravians love themselves some good coffee, Moravian Mornings was born.

 

Casey: We hope everyone enjoyed the first episode of Moravian Mornings. Next week, we’ll be speaking with the director of Historic Bethabara Park, Samantha Smith, and the education director, Diana Overby. When we recorded this episode, Samantha Smith was the director of the Park, but now, she is the Director of Community Engagement and Digital Learning at Old Salem. If you have any questions, you’d specifically like answered, feel free to contact us.

 

Announcer: This has been an episode of Moravian Mornings, a Historic Bethabara Park podcast. If you have any questions or would like our hosts to discuss certain topics, please email us at Moravianmornings@gmail.com or message us on our Instagram page, also titled Moravian Mornings. Thanks for listening. Auf Wiedersehen.

 

Notes

[1] Katherine Faull, Moravian Women’s Memoirs: Their Related Lives, 1750-1820 (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997), xvii.

[2] Ibid., xxiv.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Jon Sensbach, A Separate Canaan: The Making of an Afro-Moravian World in North Carolina, 1763-1840 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 136.

[8] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I: 1752-1771 (Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1922), 275.

[9] It can be gathered that these reasons contributed to the switch of having families live together in the same household. Moravian couples were heavily regulated in their relationship, marrying those they sometimes did not know, not able to have their children live in the same household with them and witnessing what a healthy parental relationship is, the Moravians having no sexual education course and needing to be educated on this as well as how to treat one another, and also not able to have private space as a married couple and having to rely upon the church for time alone with their partner. This can all be gathered and interpreted from the Married Persons’ Choir Helper Instructions. Another reason stated that they were able to officially live together is that with the end of the Oeconomy system, they were able to live together, but it can be assumed that there were added stressed and concerns that could have prompted this change. Zinzendorf also wanted children to enjoy free development which would be done by allowing children to live with their parents. Katherine Faull, Speaking to Body and Soul: Instructions for the Moravian Choir Helpers, 1785-1786 (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2017), 102, 105-106.

Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I. 154, 272; Daniel Thorpe, The Moravian Community in Colonial North Carolina: Pluralism on the Southern Frontier (Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1989), 70.

 

[10] Katherine Faull, Moravian Women’s Memoirs, 152-153.

[11] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I, 298.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume III: 1776-1779 (Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1926), 1120; Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume IV: 1780-1783 (Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1930), 1536, 1598.

[14] Cumnock translation of Elder’s Conference meeting minutes, Moravian Archives of Winston-Salem, NC.

[15] Daniel Thorpe, The Moravian Community in Colonial North Carolina, 20.

[16] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians, Volume I, 385.

[17] Ibid., 430, 446.

[18] Jon Sensbach, A Separate Canaan, 83.

[19] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume V: 1784-1792 (Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1941), 2183-2184.

[20] Ibid., 2035, 2183-2184.

[21] Katherine Faull, Speaking to Body and Soul, 88.

[22] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I, 301.

[23] Ibid., 241.

[24] Ibid., 385; Jon Sensbach, A Separate Canaan, 82.

[25] Jon Sensbach, The Separate Canaan, 124, 135.

[26] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I, 331; Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume II: 1752-1775 (Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1925), 743, 745; Jon Sensbach, A Separate Canaan, 124.

[27] Jon Sensbach, A Separate Canaan, 135.

[28] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume II, 774.

[29] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I, 204, 827.

[30] Katherine Faull, Speaking of the Body and Soul, 122.

[31] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume II, 555-556.

[32] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume V, 2184.

[33] Daniel Thorpe, The Moravian Community in Colonial North Carolina, 65.

[34] This refers to all marriage proposals approved by the choir helpers. Not all cases of marriage proposal went through the intended system developed by the Moravians, though this was a select few times this occurred. Most times, marriage proposals went through the church system and was addressed by the Lot. Those who did not follow this system were usually given the choice to separate and each be moved to a different congregation or they could marry and leave the Moravian Church.

[35] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I, 496.

[36] Ibid.

[37] Ibid., 201.

[38] Ibid., 75-79.

[39] Brother Gottlob actually lead the service.

[40] Ibid., 79.

[41] Ibid., 249.

[42] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume V, 2198.

[43] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I, 81.

[44] Ibid., 90.

[45] Ibid., 124.

[46] Ibid., 147.

[47] Ibid., 149.

[48] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume II, 531.

[49] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I, 233.

[50] Daniel Crews and Richard Starbuck, With Courage for the Future: The Story of the Moravian Church, Southern Province (Winston-Salem, NC: Moravian Church in America, Southern Province, 2002), 165.

[51] Ibid., 164-165.

[52] Ibid., 165.

[53] Ibid., 141.

[54] Ibid., 42.

[55] Ed. Adelaide Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume II, 691.

[56] Ibid., 894.

 

Bibliography

Crews, C. Daniel, and Richard Starbuck. With Courage for the Future: The Story of the Moravian Church, Southern Province. Winston-Salem, NC: Moravian Church in America, Southern Province, 2002.

 

Faull, Katherine, trans. Moravian Women’s Memoirs. Women and Gender in North America Religions. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997.

 

Faull, Katherine. Speaking to Body and Soul: Instructions for the Moravian Choir Helpers, 1785-1786. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2017.

 

Fries, Adelaide, ed. Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume I: 1752-1771. Vol. I. Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1922.

 

Fries, Adelaide. Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume II: 1752-1775. Vol. II. Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1925.

 

Fries, Adelaide. Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume III: 1776-1779. Vol. III. Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1926.

 

Fries, Adelaide. Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume IV: 1780-1783. Vol. IV. Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1930.

 

Fries, Adelaide. Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Volume V: 1784-1792. Vol. V. Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Print Company, 1941.

 

Thorpe, Daniel. The Moravian Community in Colonial North Carolina: Pluralism on the Southern Frontier. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1989.

 

Sensbach, Jon. A Separate Canaan: The Making of an Afro-Moravian World in North Carolina, 1763-1840. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

 

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